Abstract

This specification introduces a data model to support the publication of data describing opportunities for people to engage in physical activities ("opportunity data"). This model covers description of activities, as well as the events and locations in which they take place.

The specification is intended to support the publication of opportunity data as open data for anyone to access, use and share. It will also guide reusers of opportunity data, introducing them to the key concepts relevant to that sector.

The model may also be useful in guiding the development of both new and existing booking systems and applications that consume opportunity data.

The specification is an output of the OpenActive Community Group and serves as a common reference point for other specifications and outputs of that activity.

Developers looking for a quick primer on the model and how to use it to structure opportunity data may want to refer to the [Publishing-Opportunity-Data] primer which provides a number of additional examples.

The data model introduced in this document has been mapped to existing standards and vocabularies, including SKOS ([SKOS]) and the Schema.org ([SCHEMA-ORG]) types and properties. This existing work provides a useful existing framework around which the OpenActive Community Group can build additional data standards.

Status of This Document

This specification was published by the OpenActive Community Group. It is not a W3C Standard nor is it on the W3C Standards Track. Please note that under the W3C Community Contributor License Agreement (CLA) there is a limited opt-out and other conditions apply. Learn more about W3C Community and Business Groups.

Contributions to this document are not only welcomed but are actively solicited and should be made via GitHub Issues and pull requests. The source code is available on GitHub.

If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to [email protected] (subscribe, archives).

1. Introduction

This section is non-normative.

The W3C OpenActive Community Group was established with the objective of facilitating the sharing and use of physical activity data. Open publishing of this data has enormous potential to increase participation in physical activities.

1.1 Categories of Physical Activity Data

There are several different categories of data that are relevant to physical activities. This data covers different parts of the data spectrum and is represented in the following diagram.

Fig. 1 Types of physical activity data

Some of this data is shared data. It can only be accessed by specific people or groups, under terms and conditions that define how and when it can be accessed and used. This shared data includes personal data about people taking part in activities and participation data that describes how people have been involved in previous events.

Some of this data can be open data. Open data is data that anyone can access, use and share. All of the following types of data can be published as open data:

Collectively this is known as opportunity data.

1.2 Requirements

This specification has been developed to meet a broad set of requirements.

1.2.1 Support all types of opportunity data

As described in the previous section, opportunity data covers a variety of different types of information including data on venues, activities and events. The specification should support publication of all of these different types of data

1.2.2 Support discovery of opportunities

The aim of the OpenActive initiative is to encourage people to be more physically active. This means that this specification should focus on the data that will help people discover these opportunities.

1.2.3 Support all physical activities

The specification should be inclusive and support sharing of opportunity data about all types of physical activities, not just sports.

1.2.4 Allow sharing of activity lists

At present the physical activity sector does not have a standard list of physical activities. The specification should allow data providers to share the lists they have and support the sector in moving towards a standardised list of physical activities

1.2.5 Support a variety of sources

Opportunity data is collected and held in a variety of different tools, platforms and websites. There is variation in the amount of detail held about individual events so the specification must provide flexibility to share what data is currently available, whilst guiding activity providers towards additional useful data to collect about events.

1.2.6 Be agnostic to formats and APIs

Reflecting the wide variety of tools and platforms in use, and also that the sector is at an early stage in sharing its data more widely, this specification should not prescribe specific data formats or APIs. Ideally opportunity data could be published as JSON, XML, CSV or other formats.

1.2.7 Create an extensible framework

This specification should support extensions to allow it to be customised and revised to meet future requirements, as well as the needs of specific communities of data publishers and consumers.

1.3 Scope

This specification defines a data model for opportunity data. This reflects the goal of the OpenActive initiative whose aim is to encourage the publishing and reuse of open data that might help people to become more active.

The following items are therefore out of scope for this specification:

Support for third-party bookings is covered in the draft [Open-Booking-API] specification.

The OpenActive Community Group may produce additional specifications that address the other areas.

1.4 Structure of this document

This specification is divided into two main sections:

  1. Introduction - provides a broad definition of opportunity data and goals for this specification
  2. Key Concepts - describes the key types of resources relevant to opportunity data, along with their relationships and common attributes
  3. Data Model - a data model that maps the key concepts to some standard vocabularies

2. Conformance

As well as sections marked as non-normative, all authoring guidelines, diagrams, examples, and notes in this specification are non-normative. Everything else in this specification is normative.

The key words MAY, MUST, MUST NOT, OPTIONAL, RECOMMENDED, REQUIRED, SHOULD, and SHOULD NOT are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

This specification makes use of the compact IRI Syntax; please refer to the Compact IRIs from [JSON-LD].

3. Typographical Conventions

The following typographic conventions are used in this specification:

markup
Markup (elements, attributes, properties), machine processable values (string, characters, media types), property name, or a file name is in a monospace font.
definition
A definition of a term, to be used elsewhere in this or other specifications, is in bold and italics.
hyperlink
A hyperlink is underlined and in blue.
[reference]
A document reference (normative or informative) is enclosed in square brackets and links to the references section.

Note
Notes are in light green boxes with a green left border and with a "Note" header in green. Notes are normative or informative depending on the whether they are in a normative or informative section, respectively.

Example 1
Examples are in light khaki boxes, with khaki left border, and with a 
numbered "Example" header in khaki. Examples are always informative. 
The content of the example is in monospace font and may be syntax colored.

4. Key Concepts

This section introduces the high-level data model for opportunity data. This includes a description of the:

The model also helps to provide definitions of key terms that are used throughout this specification.

4.1 Data Model Diagram

This diagram illustrates the resources and relationships that are introduced in the following sections.

Fig. 2 Opportunity data schema diagram

4.2 Physical Activities

A Physical Activity is an exercise, sport or other form of bodily movement that involves physical effort. Physical activities will usually have a well-understood, dictionary definition.

Examples of Physical Activities include walking, running, cycling, rugby, football and tennis

Activities should have a name. They might also be associated with one of more synonyms that provide alternative names for that activity. E.g. "Soccer" is a synonym for "Football". This additional information may be useful to help improve search engines and improve data collection.

Physical Activities may also have additional information associated with them. For example a sporting activity might be overseen by a governing body or federation.

Physical Activities might also be recognised by different bodies. In the UK certain activities are recognised as suitable for educational assessments, while others may be recognised by funding bodies like Sport England.

An Activity List describes a set of Physical Activities. An Activity List may be a simple list of activity names. But an Activity List might also capture additional information. A common requirement is to describe relationships between Physical Activities.

One method of grouping activities is to define "broader" and "narrower" relationships. For example Judo, Karate and Kendo are all more specific examples of the broader activity of "Martial Arts".

This type of grouping could also be used to describe the disciplines associated with Physical Activities. For example olympic and open water swimming.

An Activity List might also group Physical Activities into collections. For example swimming, water aerobics, and water polo might all be classified as "Water Sports". Water polo and football might also be grouped into a collection of "Team Sports".

An Activity List may include any number of collections of Physical Activities. As shown in the example above, an individual Physical Activity might be present in more than one grouping.

Some systems may choose to use grouping and hierarchical relationships between Physical Activities to help people find opportunities to be active. For example a search engine might offer users results for all types of Martial Art, or for Karate specifically.

Note
The proposed model for Activity Lists is based on the [SKOS] standard for publishing controlled vocabularies.
Note
It is not a requirement that systems store, publish or use relationships between Physical Activities. A system may choose to treat Physical Activities as simple tags or categories associated with Events. Other systems may define a fixed list of Physical Activities that are used as a controlled vocabulary to guides user input and data collection. Others may adopt a more complex hierarchical approach.
Note

Developing a standard activity list

This specification doesn't place any requirements on how applications manage or use Physical Activities or Activity Lists. There is no requirement that applications that implement this specification must adopt a single standardised list, or agree on standard groupings. The intention here is to just capture a useful model that can represent the variety of data currently in use.

However there are benefits to the physical activity sector in convergence on a standard list of activities in order to improve discovery, reporting, etc. The OpenActive Community Group are developing a standard list as a separate activity. For more information see [OpenActive-Activity-List].

4.3 Events

An Event is an opportunity to take part in a Physical Activity. Events take place at a specific location (see below) at an agreed date and time.

Some Events are one-off occurrences. For example a fun run organised by a local group may run as a standalone event on a particular date.

Other events take place on a regular schedule. For example a weekly gym class may run every Wednesday evening at 7pm. While a local walking club might meet on a Saturday morning once a month.

It is useful to publish data about both individual Events and those with recurring schedules. People looking for opportunities to be active will be interested in both specific questions ("what can I do tomorrow") and more general information about scheduled activities.

For some scheduled events, participants may not have to commit to attending every session. They can drop-in for individual classes, or build up a regular habit to improve their fitness. For other events, like a course, there is might be an expectation that a participant will attend every class.

Some large scale events, such as a family fun day, might consist of a programme of smaller scheduled events that take place over the course of a single or multiple days.

In order to simplify terminology in this specification we use the term "Event" to refer to all types of opportunities, including one-off and regularly occurring events. However in the detailed data model we distinguish between some types of events to allow data users to better present opportunities to potential participants.

Regardless of what type of an event is being described, there is a range of additional information that may help describe the event to potential participants. This includes:

Note

There are a variety of ways to categorise and describe events. This includes restrictions on attendance, aspect of suitability for different audiences and fitness levels, and a mixture of pre-requisites such as the need for certain qualifications, membership or equipment.

The initial version of this specification prioritises capturing the essential elements of describing an event. The structured information about time, place and activity is supplemented with some basic descriptive properties. This also includes the ability to add "tags" to an event to capture a variety of categorisation elements. Future versions of this specification will use experience working with real-world data to decide the best approach of formalising these categories.

4.4 Organisers (Persons and Organizations)

Events have organisers. An event organiser might be a Person or an Organization. The organiser of an event is the person or organisation who arranged and/or hosts the event. The organizer will be the person or organisation who is ultimately responsible for an Event.

Examples of organisers might be coaches, or a local sports club.

Events may involve other named individuals or organisations. Examples might include named staff who will be participating in the event in addition to the main organiser. These are referred to as contributors.

In addition to their names, some systems may have additional information about organisers and contributors. E.g. links to their web sites, photos, logos or contact details.

Note

Applications must not publish personal data without permission

This specification provides a data model for publishing information about individual people, e.g. coaches, volunteers, etc. However applications MUST respect privacy and data protection laws and must not publish data about individuals without their consent.

The ability to publish this type of data has been included because event organisers often choose to publicly share some information about themselves to help advertise an event. E.g. their name and some background on their qualifications or experience. But this information MUST not be published as open data without getting the consent of the individual concerned.

4.5 Places

Events take place in a location. But, depending on the activity, the location may be defined to different levels of precision. For example:

In addition to this, data publishers will have different approaches for capturing location data.

Recognising this need for flexibility, this model proposes that a location can be specified as any of the following:

This specification uses Place as a general concept to refer to all types of locations, venues and facilities.

The concept of Place therefore covers general outdoor areas such as parks, event venues (e.g. a Leisure centre) and facilities within a venue (e.g. a squash court, running track, etc). Facilities are contained in Places.

A Sports Activity Location is a type of Place that is used to describe a facilities within a broader Place.

Places may have additional descriptive properties, for example:

4.6 Programmes and Brands

Events are often organised and run in a variety of different ways. This tailoring might include adjusting the activity to a particular type of participant, demographic. Or it could include running the event in a particular style, e.g. with a fixed routine or sequence of activities.

A Programme describes a means of organising and running a Physical Activity. Some programmes are very loosely defined. While others are more structured and may be run to a specific agenda or in a particular style.

Programmes are often associated with branding or marketing that helps participants understand more about what they can expect from an event of that format. Formats might be offered or overseen by specific organisations

Examples of programmes include:

Programmes provide another means of tagging or describing Events to help describe them to participants. When participants are looking for opportunities they may be interested in discovering Events based on either the general activity (e.g. Running) or a specific programme (Back to Netball).

4.7 Offers

Some opportunities are freely available for anyone to attend. Others are only available to members or paying attendees.

An Offer is used to describe the terms under which a participant can pay to attend an event.

Note

The concept of an Offer is taken from Schema.org, which itself references the Good Relations vocabulary for ecommerce. The data model described in a later section is not intended as a complete specification. The concept is introduced in this version of specification to highlight the support available in Schema.org for associating offers with events. Later versions of the specification will explore the area of booking in more detail.

4.8 Facility Use and Slots

Not all opportunities to be physically active are scheduled Events. Leisure centres and other locations also provide facilities (e.g. squash courts, pitches, table tennis tables) that are available for use by participants.

To manage demand these facilities are usually available for hire at specific times of day. These are referred to as Slots. A Slot is an opportunity to use a facility at a specific time and a specific duration, e.g. from 10am for 30 minutes

Some facilities are permanent parts of a leisure centre (or other Place). For example tennis courts, football pitches, etc.

But many leisure centres have flexibility to reconfigure their spaces to support different, often mutually exclusive ways. For example an individual sports hall might be used as either a single indoor 5-a-side pitch, or as two separate badminton courts.

Modelling the potential configurations of these spaces is outside the scope of this specification. The community group has chosen to take a more user centred view of describing opportunities to use facilities. This supports our primary use case of enabling the discovery of opportunities.

A Facility Use is a product that is offered to potential participants. It reflects the ability to use or hire a facility at a specific location. A platform can publish data about the range of products on offer at a location, updating their availability as facilities are booked by participants.

The following properties will help to describe the specific Facility Use product on offer:

Some facility use products are opportunities to use a individual, identifiable facility, e.g. Tennis Court 1. These are referred to a as Individual Facility Uses. The location of these products will be a Sports Activity Location.

Otherwise, a Facility Use will describe an oppirtunity to use less permanent facilities, e.g. a table tennis table that will be moved into a sports hall on demand, or for an unnamed facility that will be allocated by a platform during booking. In this case the location will be for the Place in which the facility is available.

Facilities may be offered for use at a single price at any time of day, or the price may vary depending on on which Slot is used.

As the use of facility is a self-directed activity it will differ from an Event in that is will not be lead, coached, etc.

5. Data Model

The data model described in the following sections reuses existing standards and vocabularies which have then been extended to cover the additional requirements needs to support the publication of opportunity data.

The Simple Knowledge Organisation System ([SKOS]) is a W3C standard for publishing taxonomies and category schemes. It can be used to help publish and organise Activity Lists and to describe Physical Activities.

Schema.org [SCHEMA-ORG] provides an existing well-used and documented data model for publishing data to the web. It provides an existing model for describing Events, Organisations, People, and Places.

Both standards are widely used, and can be used to publish data in a variety of structured formats, including [JSON-LD].

The OpenActive Vocabulary [OpenActive-Vocabulary] is a custom vocabulary designed to support the publication of opportunity data. It defines a number of new terms that extend SKOS and Schema.org to cover additional requirements highlighted in this specification.

Note
Developers looking for a quick primer on the model and how to use it to structure opportunity data may want to refer to the [Publishing-Opportunity-Data] primer which provides many more examples.

5.1 Namespaces

The rest of this specification makes use of the following namespaces:

dc:
http://purl.org/dc/terms/
schema:
https://schema.org/
skos:
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#
oa:
https://openactive.io/
Note

In the following sections all referenced terms have been qualified using their namespace prefix. This highlights the source vocabulary in which they have been defined. Terms have also been linked to their definitions.

The examples in each section use [JSON-LD] syntax and reference the OpenActive JSON-LD context defined by [OpenActive-Vocabulary], which is accessible at https://openactive.io/ when using an Accept header that includes application/ld+json.

The context removes the need to use explicit namespace prefixes in the JSON documents. The context also maps the JSON-LD @type and @id properties to simple keys (type and id). This further limits the amount of JSON-LD syntax exposed to developers.

5.2 Data Model Overview

The following table provides a high-level summary of how the concepts introduced in the previous sections map to definitions in SKOS, Schema.org and the OpenActive Vocabulary ([OpenActive-Vocabulary]).




Concept Mapping Notes
Activity List skos:ConceptScheme Activity lists are controlled vocabularies and map well to the definition of a SKOS Concept Scheme.
Physical Activity skos:Concept Individual Physical Activities can be represented as individual SKOS concepts
Event schema:Event Schema.org provides a well defined model for Events with properties that cover many of the core requirements for opportunity data. This specification defines some additional types of Event and properties for describing them in the context of publishing opportunity data.
Place schema:Place As well as the general definition of a Place, Schema.org defines sub-types including schema:EventVenue and schema:SportsActivityLocation which can be used where appropriate
Facility Use schema:FacilityUse Products that describe opportunities to use facilities in a location
Organization schema:Organization Covers all types of organisations, including companies, clubs, etc
Person schema:Person An individual person
Brand schema:Brand The brand used to describe a programme of activities.
Offer schema:Offer Schema.org provides an existing model for describing offers to pay to participate in an Event.

5.3 Identifying and Linking Resources

This specification adopts the same approach as Schema.org and encourages the use of URLs as unique identifiers for resources.

Information about Events, Places, Organizations and other types of resources should already have been published online to make that information accessible to users. Using existing URLs as identifiers avoids the need to define a new identifier scheme for resources described in opportunity data.

There will generally be a single canonical URL for a resource, e.g. the homepage for an Organization or Place, or a public web page advertising an Event.

If there are several different URLs that may be used to identify a resource, it is recommended that systems use:

This specification provides three properties for identifying resources:

In short, the @id property provides a unique global identifier, while the schema:url provides a means to provide a link to a public web page about a resource.

If applicable then publishers may choose to use the same URI for these two properties. If an @id property is not provided then applications MAY choose to rely on the value of the schema:url property as a unique identifier.

The option to use two different URLs is useful when there is a need to distinguish between a unique identifier and a public resource. For example a platform hosting opportunity data may need to assign a unique identifier to a resource that is separate to its public web page.

Example 2: Simple event description

{
  "@context": "https://openactive.io/",
  "type": "Event",
  "id": "http://host.opportunity-data.com/id/12345",
  "url": "http://my-leisure-centre.example.org/events/1",
  "name": "Tai chi Class"
}

In the above example the @id property provides a unique identifier across the hosting application. But the public URL for the Event uses a separate, customer-specific domain.

5.4 Required and Optional Properties

The following sections include more detail about the properties available to describe each type of resource. Some properties are considered to be essential to ensure the provision of a minimally useful set of information about each resource. These REQUIRED properties MUST be provided.

All other properties are considered to be OPTIONAL. Some properties have been marked as RECOMMENDED. Publishers SHOULD provide these properties if it is feasible to do so, as they will improve the quality and usability of their data.

Where data is not available to populate RECOMMENDED and OPTIONAL properties, publishers MUST exclude these from their data. Published data MUST not include properties with null values, empty strings or empty arrays.

Data publishers MAY include additional properties, e.g. from Schema.org or other vocabularies when helpful to describe their data. See the section on Extending the Model for more information.

Applications that consume opportunity data MUST ignore any properties that they don't understand. This allows data publishing practices within the sector to evolve as required.

5.5 Controlled Vocabularies

When the value of a property might be one of a fixed set of values, it can be useful to publish that list of values as a "controlled vocabulary".

This allows a publisher to publish the list of values, with supporting documentation and definitions in a machine-readable format. We use the existing [SKOS] standard as a means of publishing these vocabularies.

A number of properties in this data model allow data publishers to use values from a controlled vocabulary, e.g. oa:activity, oa:level, oa:category, etc.

Publishers SHOULD publish the controlled vocabularies referenced from their data in a machine-readable format, under an open licence.

The OpenActive Community group MAY create and recommend the use of specific controlled vocabularies to help improve the consistency of how data is published.

Publishers SHOULD use values from standard vocabularies where available.

For example, the community group is developing a controlled vocabulary that defines a standard activity list. Values from this vocabulary can be used in the oa:activity property.

The OpenActive Community Group may decide to define and recommend some controlled vocabularies for use in these properties. At present the values of these properties are left deliberately open to encourage publication of open data that may inform future standardisation.

5.6 Describing Events (schema:Event)

The Schema.org schema:Event type corresponds to the definition of Event given earlier in this specification. The properties and relationships associated with the schema:Event type can all be used to describe events.

The following table illustrates how the essential aspects of describing an event map to existing Schema.org properties and/or properties defined in the OpenActive Vocabulary.











Property Status Type Notes
@type REQUIRED String Identifies the object as being an Event
@id RECOMMENDED URI A URI providing a unique, stable identifier for the resource
schema:url REQUIRED URI Link to a web page (or section of a page) that describes the event
schema:identifier OPTIONAL Number, String, schema:PropertyValue or an array of schema:PropertyValue A local identifier for the resource.
schema:name REQUIRED String The name of the event
schema:description RECOMMENDED String A free text description of the event
schema:image OPTIONAL Array of schema:ImageObject One or more images or photos that depicts the event, e.g. a photo taken at a previous event
schema:startDate RECOMMENDED String

The start date and time of the event. Can be specified as a schema:Date or schema:DateTime.

While this property is marked as OPTIONAL, a data publisher MUST provide either a schema:startDate or at least one schema:eventSchedule for an event.

schema:endDate RECOMMENDED String

The end date and time of the event. Can be specified as a schema:Date or schema:DateTime

It is RECOMMENDED that publishers provide either an schema:endDate or a schema:duration for an event.

schema:duration RECOMMENDED String The duration of the event given in [ISO8601] format. Durations MUST NOT be zero length. If duration is unknown it should be omitted. A duration MUST be provided if both a start and end date are available.
schema:location REQUIRED schema:Place The location at which the event will take place. Or, in the case of events that may span multiple locations, the initial meeting or starting point.
schema:organizer REQUIRED schema:Person or schema:Organization The person or organization responsible for running an event. An organizer might be an schema:Organization or a schema:Person.
schema:contributor RECOMMENDED Array of schema:Person One or more people, e.g. a coach, staff member or volunteer who will be helping to run the event.
schema:maximumAttendeeCapacity RECOMMENDED Integer The maximum capacity of the event
schema:remainingAttendeeCapacity RECOMMENDED Integer The number of places that are still available for the event
schema:eventStatus RECOMMENDED schema:EventStatusType The status of an event. Can be used to indicate rescheduled or cancelled events
schema:subEvent OPTIONAL Array of schema:Event Relates a parent event to one or more child events. Properties describing the parent event can be assumed to apply to the child, unless otherwise specified. A child event might be a specific instance of an Event within a schedule
schema:superEvent OPTIONAL schema:Event Relates a child event to a parent event. Properties describing the parent event can be assumed to apply to the child, unless otherwise specified. A parent event might specify a recurring schedule, of which the child event is one specific instance
schema:eventSchedule Array of OPTIONAL schema:Schedule A schedule defines a repeating time period used to describe a regularly occurring Event.
oa:schedulingNote OPTIONAL String Provides a note from an organizer relating to how this Event is scheduled. For example "This event doesn't run during school holidays", or "This is a regular weekly session". Where possible publishers SHOULD provide machine-readable descriptions of schedules via the schema:eventSchedule property.
oa:activity REQUIRED Array of skos:Concept Specifies one or more physical activities that will take place during an event. The activities SHOULD ideally be taken from an activity list.
oa:category OPTIONAL Array of String or skos:Concept Provides a set of tags that help categorise and describe an event, e.g. its intensity, purpose, etc.
oa:ageRange RECOMMENDED schema:QuantitativeValue Indicates that an event is suitable for a specific age range. Specified as a QuantitativeValue with minValue and maxValue properties
oa:genderRestriction OPTIONAL oa:GenderRestrictionType Indicates that an event is restricted to Male, Female or a Mixed audience. Values should be one of the three URIs defined by this specification (see below).
oa:programme OPTIONAL schema:Brand Indicates that an event will be organised according to a specific Programme
oa:attendeeInstructions OPTIONAL String Provides additional notes and instructions for event attendees. E.g. more information on how to find the event, what to bring, etc.
oa:leader OPTIONAL Array of schema:Person Refers to a person (schema:Person) who will be leading an event. E.g. a coach. This is a more specific role than an organiser or a contributor
oa:accessibilitySupport OPTIONAL Array of String or skos:Concept Used to specify the types of disabilities or impairments that are supported at an event
oa:accessibilityInformation OPTIONAL String Provide additional, specific documentation for participants about how disabilities are, or can be supported at the Event.
oa:isCoached OPTIONAL Boolean A boolean property that indicates whether an Event will be coached. This flag allows an Event to be marked as being coached without having to specify a named individual as a coach. This addresses both privacy concerns and also scenarios where the actual coach may only be decided on the day. If this property is not specified then consumers SHOULD assume a value of undefined
oa:level RECOMMENDED Array of String or skos:Concept A general purpose property for specifying the suitability of an event for different participant “levels”. E.g. beginner/intermediate/advanced. Or in the case of martial arts, specific belt requirements. Values SHOULD ideally be drawn from a controlled vocabulary.
oa:meetingPoint OPTIONAL String Instructions for the attendees of an Event about where they should meet the organizer or leader at the start of the event. Some larger locations may have several possible meeting points, so this property provides additional more specific directions.
schema:isAccessibleForFree OPTIONAL Boolean Indicates that an Event is free to attend. If an Event is bookable in advance, then publishers SHOULD also define a zero priced schema:Offer. If the only schema:Offer for an Event is zero priced, then publishers SHOULD include this property with a value of true.
oa:isAccessibleWithoutBooking OPTIONAL Boolean If this is true then a participant can turn up and participate on the day. There may also be opportunities for them to book in advance. If the property is false then a user MUST book in advance. In this case there MUST be at least one bookable Offer for the Event. If this property is provided with a value of false then the MUST be at least one applicable Offer with an @id and/or url property.
schema:offers RECOMMENDED Array of schema:Offer Provides one or more offers to book and participate in an Event
schema:potentialAction OPTIONAL Array of schema:Action Provides one or more actions that can be carried out on this Event, e.g. through interacting with an API or other service. The [Open-Booking-API] defines a ReserveAction.

The following example shows a simple event description, including its start time and duration:

Example 3: Simple event description

{
  "@context": "https://openactive.io/",
  "type": "Event",
  "url": "http://www.example.org/events/1",
  "name": "Tai chi Class",
  "description": "A tai chi class intended for beginners",
  "attendeeInstructions": "Please wear trainers and comfortable clothing",
  "startDate": "2017-03-22T20:00:00-05:00",
  "duration": "PT60M"
}

This basic description can be improved by providing information about its location and organizer.

Example 4: Adding a venue and an organizer

{
  "@context": "https://openactive.io/",
  "type": "Event",
  "url": "http://www.example.org/events/1",
  "name": "Tai chi Class",
  "description": "A tai chi class intended for beginners",
  "attendeeInstructions": "Please wear trainers and comfortable clothing",
  "startDate": "2017-03-22T20:00:00-05:00",
  "duration": "PT60M",
  "organizer": [{
    "type": "Organization",
    "url": "http://example.org/orgs/bristol-tai-chi",
    "name": "Bristol Tai Chi"
}], "location": { "type": "Place", "name": "ExampleCo Gym", "address": { "type": "PostalAddress", "streetAddress": "1 High Street", "addressLocality": "Bristol", "addressCountry": "GB", "addressRegion": "Somerset", "postalCode": "BS1 4SD" } }
}

5.6.1 Relating events to Physical Activities

The oa:activity property allows an event to be associated with one or more Physical Activities. The Physical Activities used to describe an event SHOULD be drawn from a standard Activity List, e.g. the OpenActive Activity List ([OpenActive-Activity-List]).

Example 5: Using activities from an Activity List

{
  "@context": "https://openactive.io/",
  "type": "Event",
  "url": "http://www.example.org/events/1",
  "name": "Tai chi Class",
  "description": "A tai chi class intended for beginners",
  "startDate": "2017-03-22T20:00:00-05:00",
  "duration": "PT60M",
  "activity": [{
    "id": "https://openactive.io/activity-list#c16df6ed-a4a0-4275-a8c3-1c8cff56856f",
    "type": "Concept",
    "prefLabel": "Tai Chi",
    "inScheme": "https://openactive.io/activity-list"
  }]
}

Applications could include additional information, e.g. alternate labels for convenience of consumers.

5.6.2 Describing event availability

Schema.org provides a couple of basic properties for describing the maximum (schema:maximumAttendeeCapacity) and remaining capacity (schema:remainingAttendeeCapacity) for an schema:Event.

These properties can be used to provide some basic availability information for scheduled events. These are illustrated in the following example which states that a Tai chi class can be attended by up to 20 people and that there are 4 spaces remaining.

Example 6: Basic event availability

{
  "@context": "https://openactive.io/",
  "type": "Event",
  "url": "http://www.example.org/events/1",
  "name": "Tai chi Class",
  "description": "A tai chi class intended for beginners",
  "startDate": "2017-03-22T20:00:00-05:00",
  "duration": "PT60M",
  "maximumAttendeeCapacity": 20,
  "remainingAttendeeCapacity": 4
}

5.6.3 Indicating the status of an event

An schema:Event may occasionally be rescheduled or cancelled. Schema.org provides the schema:eventStatus property for indicating the current status of an event.

The property can have several standardised values which are defined by the schema:EventStatusType enumeration. The property values should therefore be one of the following URIs:

If the status property is not provided then applications SHOULD assume a default value of https://schema.org/EventScheduled.

The following example shows a Tai chi class that has been cancelled:

Example 7: A cancelled event

{
  "@context": "https://openactive.io/",
  "type": "Event",
  "url": "http://www.example.org/events/1",
  "name": "Tai chi Class",
  "description": "A tai chi class intended for beginners",
  "startDate": "2017-03-22T20:00:00-05:00",
  "duration": "PT60M",
  "eventStatus": "https://schema.org/EventCancelled"
}

5.6.4 Categorising events

The oa:category property can be used to associate an Event with one or more tags that provide some extra context about an event. This might include general information on the intensity and suitability. While this property can be used to add any arbitrary tags to an Event, a common use case is the need to tag an event as being suitable for a specific type of audience, e.g. Beginners. Where this information is available, the oa:level property can be used in preference to oa:category.

If an application does not distinguish between different types of tags associated with an Event, then it SHOULD use the more general oa:category property.

Example 8: Tagging an Event

{
  "@context": "https://openactive.io/",
  "type": "Event",
  "url": "http://www.example.org/events/1",
  "name": "Tai chi Class",
  "description": "A tai chi class intended for beginners",
  "startDate": "2017-03-22T20:00:00-05:00",
  "duration": "PT60M",
  "category": [
    "Suitable For All", "Low Intensity"
  ],
  "level": [{
    "type": "Concept",
    "prefLabel": "Beginner"
  }]
}

Category tags can be specified as either a simple array of string values or as Concepts. This allows publishers to include values from a controlled vocabulary if they use one in their application.

5.6.5 Adding programmes (schema:Brand)

Events can be associated with a Programme using the oa:programme property. A programme is a schema:Brand object.


Property Status Format Notes
@type REQUIRED String Brand
@id RECOMMENDED URI A URI providing a unique identifier for the resource
schema:name REQUIRED String The name of the programme
schema:url REQUIRED URL A URL to the homepage or other page about the programme
schema:description RECOMMENDED String A description of the programme
schema:logo RECOMMENDED schema:ImageObject Logo for the programme
Example 9: Adding a programme

{
  "@context": "https://openactive.io/",
  "type": "Event",
  "url": "http://www.example.org/events/1",
  "name": "Back to Netball",
  "description": "A slightly more energetic way to get back in to Netball if you’ve had a break from the sport or for those who’d like to give something new a go. This is based on the traditional 7 a-side netball game and involves running and jumping. It’s a fun light hearted session, where we do netball skills (a bit of fitness – not too much!) and match play. We have players of all ages and abilities ranging from players in their 20’s through to 50’s!",
  "attendeeInstructions": "Just wear proper trainers, comfy clothes and bring a drink.",
  "startDate": "2017-04-01T08:00:00Z",
  "duration": "PT60M",
  "programme": {
    "type": "Brand",
    "name": "Back to Netball", 
    "url": "https://www.englandnetball.co.uk/backtonetball/",
    "description": "Running across England since 2010, over 60,000 women have taken part in Back to Netball and realised the benefits of getting involved.",
    "logo": {
      "type": "ImageObject",
      "url": "http://hertsnetball.co.uk/js/plugins/imagemanager/files/B2N_logo.jpg"
    }
  }
}

5.6.6 Describing the audience suitability of events

There are a variety of ways in which the suitability of an event for specific audiences can be expressed. This includes specifying that an event is:

  • suited for a specific age range
  • suited for people with specific levels of experience (oa:level)
  • restricted to a male, female or mixed audience
5.6.6.1 Age ranges

Age ranges are specified using the oa:ageRange property. The value is a schema:QuantitativeValue which should have minValue or maxValue properties. These properties specify an inclusive minimum and maximum age range for participants.

Data publishers using the oa:ageRange property MUST ensure that it has:

Data consumers SHOULD assume that:

  • if there is no ageRange property for an Event, then the event is suitable for adults only. E.g. as if the minValue has been specified as 18
  • if an ageRange is provided without a minValue property, then there is no minimum age for the Event
  • if an ageRange is provided without a maxValue property, then there is no maximum age for the Event
  • if an ageRange is provided with a minValue of 0, and there is no maxValue property then the Event is suitable for all

The following example illustrates how to specify an Event that is suitable for people aged 60 or over.

Example 10: Age range example

{
  "@context": "https://openactive.io/",
  "type": "Event",
  "url": "http://www.example.org/events/1",
  "name": "Tai chi Class",
  "ageRange": {
     "type": "QuantitativeValue",
     "minValue": 60
  }
}

The following example illustrates an Event that is suitable for all ages. This is indicated by providing an minValue property with a value of zero and no maxValue property.

Example 11: Age range - suitable for all example

{
  "@context": "https://openactive.io/",
  "type": "Event",
  "url": "http://www.example.org/events/1",
  "name": "Exercise in the park",
  "ageRange": {
     "type": "QuantitativeValue",
     "minValue": 0
  }
}
5.6.6.2 Gender restrictions

Attendance at some events is limited to certain audiences. For example a female only gym class. The oa:genderRestriction property can be used to specify these restrictions.

Data publishers using this property MUST use one of the following values:

If the genderRestriction property is not supplied for an Event, then data consumers SHOULD NOT assume a default value, the value should be treated as null. When searching or filtering for gender restricted Events, data consumers SHOULD remove Events with a null value.

Invalid values for the genderRestriction property SHOULD be treated as null.

Example 12: Gender restriction example

{
  "@context": "https://openactive.io/",
  "type": "Event",
  "url": "http://www.example.org/events/1",
  "name": "Gym class",
  "genderRestriction": "https://openactive.io/FemaleOnly"
}
Note: Request for feedback

The community group is aware of both the issues that arise from defining standard terms for gender and the inclusivity issues that might arise from restricting participation in events.

We have standardised these terms to reflect the ways that events are currently described. However there are many additional considerations that relate to how gender is described and the ways that events might be advertised and run in order for people to feel safe and included.

We encourage the community to reflect on the approach outlined here and experiment with alternative options. We have outlined some of these options and welcome feedback on how we can improve this area of the specification.

5.6.6.3 Describing support for disabilities

This specification defines several ways to capture information from organisers about the types of support they provide for people with disabilities or other impairments. This includes:

Examples of using these are shown below:

Example 13: Accessibility information

{
  "@context": "https://openactive.io/",
  "type": "Event",
  "url": "http://www.example.org/events/1",
  "name": "Tai chi Class",
  "description": "A tai chi class intended for beginners",
  "startDate": "2017-03-22T20:00:00-05:00",
  "duration": "PT60M",
  "accessibilitySupport": ["Hearing Impairment", "Visual Impairment"],
  "accessibilityInformation": "The location is fully accessible, please contact the organiser if you have questions"
}

5.6.7 Parent-child relationships between Events

Events are often related to one another in parent-child relationships. For example a whole day event (the parent) might consist of a programme of shorter events such as individual races that take place at different times of the day (the children).

This type of relationship between events can be described using the schema:subEvent and schema:superEvent properties. Note on each occasion within this specification that a relationship is represented using schema:subEvent and conformance rules MUST be adapted accordingly.

Example 14: Parent-child Events

{
  "@context": "https://openactive.io/",
  "type": "HeadlineEvent",
  "url": "http://www.example.org/events/1",
  "name": "Aquathlon Day",
  "description": "A day of aquathlon races",
  "startDate": "2018-09-01T09:00:00-05:00",
  "endDate": "2018-09-01T17:00:00-05:00",
"duration": "P1D", "subEvent": [ { "type": "Event", "url": "http://www.example.org/events/2", "name": "Aquathlon Sprint", "startDate": "2018-09-01T10:00:00-05:00" }, { "type": "Event", "url": "http://www.example.org/events/2", "name": "Aquathlon Long Course", "startDate": "2018-09-01T14:00:00-05:00" }
] }

The HeadlineEvent type used in this example is described in the following section.

When not otherwise specified on the child event, a consumer MAY assume that some properties that describe the parent (schema:superEvent) event also apply to the child. This might include properties such as the location, organizer or audience suitability of an Event. This is referred to as "property inheritance".

Some properties are never inherited. These properties are @type, @id, schema:url, schema:identifier and schema:eventSchedule. A consumer MUST NOT assume that these properties apply to child events.

If a child Event provides a property with the same name as its parent (e.g. startDate) then consumers MUST use the value provided for the child and not that of the parent.

By default the offers property, listing the Offers available to participate in an Event are also not inherited. Consumers MUST NOT assume that any Offers provided for a parent event are automatically applicable to child events. However some types of event MAY allow for inheritance of offers. This is discussed in the following sections.

5.6.8 Types of event

schema:Event provides a useful default type for describing Events.

However in practice it can be useful to distinguish between some specific types of Event. This gives data consumers more context that can help them index and recommended Events to potential participants. Recognising additional types of Event can also be useful in defining additional conformance and validation rules that guide how data is published and used.

This specification defines several sub-types of Event. These are described in the following sections. Unless otherwise specified:

  • all of the properties defined for schema:Event can applied to each sub-type
  • properties have the same status (e.g. REQUIRED) as for the generic type
  • the property inheritance rules defined in the previous section apply to each sub-type

Where publishers are unsure whether a sub-type applies they SHOULD use the generic schema:Event type. Publishers MUST NOT use any of these sub-types to describe other forms of Event.

When data consumers encounter a new sub-type of Event, they SHOULD treat it as if it were of the generic schema:Event type. New sub-types might be defined in future versions of this specification or as custom types by individual publishers.

5.6.8.1 Regular sessions (SessionSeries and ScheduledSession)

Many organisers run regularly scheduled Events, e.g. a weekly exercise class or a monthly ride of a cycle club.

These can be thought of as two distinct types of Event:

The following example illustrates how these types are used.

Example 15: Scheduled Series

{
  "@context": "https://openactive.io/",
  "type": "SessionSeries",
  "url": "http://www.example.org/events/1",
  "name": "Wednesday Yoga",
  "description": "Yoga on a Wednesday",
  "startDate": "2018-01-01",
  "endDate": "2018-12-31"
  "subEvent": [
    {
      "type": "ScheduledSession",
      "url": "http://www.example.org/events/2",
      "startDate": "2018-09-05T18:00:00-05:00",
      "endDate": "2018-09-05T19:00:00-05:00",
      "duration": "PT1H"
}, ...
] }

Publishers SHOULD use the oa:SessionSeries type for describing Events that occur on a regular schedule. The child events of a oa:SessionSeries provided in a schema:subEvent property MUST all be of the oa:ScheduledSession type.

As an oa:SessionSeries is intended to be a parent for other events, then it MUST have either a schema:eventSchedule which describes the schedule for the subevents, OR must be explicitly associated with those events via a schema:subEvent (or schema:superEvent) property.

Where an schema:eventSchedule is provided for a oa:SessionSeries then it MUST include a oa:scheduledEventType property with a value of oa:ScheduledSession

In addition to the above, there are some other changes that apply to these type that override conformance rules defined for schema:Event.

For an oa:ScheduledSession:

  • it MUST NOT have either a schema:eventSchedule or a schema:subEvent. They are individual instances of events.
  • the schema:startDate property is REQUIRED. This will either be explicitly provided or derived as part of generating it from a Schedule
  • The schema:url property is RECOMMENDED
  • The schema:eventStatus property is RECOMMENDED
  • The schema:description, schema:image, schema:organizer, oa:ageRange, oa:genderRestriction and oa:level properties are OPTIONAL. This information can be provided and inherited from the parent oa:SessionSeries

For an oa:SessionSeries:

  • The schema:startDate and schema:endDate properties are OPTIONAL
  • The schema:eventStatus property is OPTIONAL

In addition to the normal rules around property inheritance, data consumers MAY also assume that Offers provided for a oa:SessionSeries also apply to their child events, of type oa:ScheduledSession.

This is in the only time that Offers may be inherited between types. This is permitted here as the parent Event exists to describe a series of sessions. The individual sessions MAY have additional properties and consumers MUST use these where provided.

5.6.8.2 Headline events (HeadlineEvent)

The ability to describe parent-child relationships between Events provides a useful way to publish an event programme for a whole day or multi-day event, such as a mass participation event, family fun day, etc.

To help distinguish programmed events from the "headline" event itself, this specification defines the oa:HeadlineEvent type.

Example 16: Headline Events

{
  "@context": "https://openactive.io/",
  "type": "HeadlineEvent",
  "url": "http://www.example.org/events/1",
  "name": "Aquathlon Day",
  "description": "A day of aquathlon races",
  "startDate": "2018-09-01T09:00:00-05:00",
  "endDate": "2018-09-01T17:00:00-05:00",
"duration": "P1D", "subEvent": [ { "type": "Event", "url": "http://www.example.org/events/2", "name": "Aquathlon Sprint", "startDate": "2018-09-01T10:00:00-05:00" }, { "type": "Event", "url": "http://www.example.org/events/3", "name": "Aquathlon Long Course", "startDate": "2018-09-01T14:00:00-05:00" }
] }

The oa:HeadlineEvent is mainly provided as a means for data consumers to treat these types of events differently from oa:SessionSeries.

For example a web application might display a oa:HeadlineEvent with a custom page that includes a summary of its programme of activities.

A oa:HeadlineEvent is an event in its own right, and MUST NOT have an schema:eventSchedule property. Publishers MUST provide a schema:startDate.

As with the generic type, any Offers provided for a oa:HeadlineEvent apply to that Event, they are not inherited by individual child events. However a publisher MAY provide Offers for individual events in the programme if they are individually ticketed.

5.6.8.3 Courses (CourseInstance)

Schema.org defines a Course as an education course that is run at different times and places. The course might consist of one or more individual classes.

These instances of a course are described using the schema:CourseInstance type.

Publishers SHOULD use the schema:CourseInstance type when describing courses of any duration.

Example 17: Course Instance

{
  "@context": "https://openactive.io/",
  "type": "CourseInstance",
  "url": "http://www.example.org/events/1",
  "name": "Sailing Course",
  "description": "A ten week sailing course",
  "startDate": "2018-08-30",
  "endDate": "2018-11-08"
  "subEvent": [
    {
      "type": "Event",
      "url": "http://www.example.org/events/2",
      "startDate": "2018-08-30T09:00:00-05:00",
      "endDate": "2018-08-30T10:00:00-05:00",
      "duration": "PT1H"
}, ...
] }

A schema:CourseInstance MUST have either a subEvent property AND/or an eventSchedule property that provides information about the individual classes.

Child events of a schema:CourseInstance SHOULD be of the generic schema:Event type.

A participant will typically pay to attend a whole course. So, as with the generic type, any Offers provided for a [schema:CourseInstance apply to the whole course any not the individual classes. However a publisher MAY provide Offers for individual events in the programme if they are individually ticketed.

Note: Status of CourseInstance
schema:CourseInstance is currently a draft Schema.org type. As a result, both publishers and consumers should be aware that its definition may need to change in future versions of this specification.
5.6.8.4 Grouping together events (EventSeries)

All of the previous examples of event types provide a means of grouping together events:

  • schema:CourseInstance defines a group of classes
  • oa:ScheduledSeries groups together a series of regular events
  • oa:HeadlineEvent groups together a programme events occuring as part of a large Event

More broadly, other properties of a set of Events can be used to group them together in useful ways. For example Events might be grouped based on:

  • their schema:organizer to identify all Events organisations by a specific person or organisation
  • their schema:place to list all Events taking place at a specific location
  • their oa:programmee to identify Events that are part of the same Brand
  • their oa:activity to define a list of Events that involve the same physical activity

Data consumers are encouraged to use all of the information available about Events to provide useful ways for participants to discover opportunities to be active. Data publishers should expect that events published as open data might be organised and presented in a number of different ways.

However it can also be useful for publishers to identify that a set of Events are related to one another in some way and provide information about that set.

The Schema.org EventSeries type can be used to group together related events. This allows the publisher to provide this grouping for data consumers, along with additional information such as images, a common description, etc.

The following example illustrates using this type to group together adult swimming sessions available from two different locations at different dates and times. Event schedules are described further in the following section.

Example 18: Event Series

{
  "@context": "https://openactive.io/",
  "type": "EventSeries",
  "url": "http://www.example.org/events/1",
  "name": "Swim For Adults",
  "description": "Adult swimming session",
  "activity": [{
  "type": "Concept",
  "prefLabel": "Swimming"
  }],
  "subEvent": [
    {
      "type": "SessionSeries",
      "url": "http://www.example.org/events/2",
      "name": "Swim For Adults",
      "location": {
        "type": "Place",
        "name": "ExampleCo Gym"
        ...
      },
      "eventSchedule": [
        {
          "type": "Schedule",
          "startDate": "2017-01-01",
          "endDate": "2017-12-31",
          "repeatFrequency": "P1W",
          "byDay": [ "https://schema.org/Wednesday" ],
          "startTime": "19:00",
          "endTime": "20:00",
          "duration": "PT1H",
          "scheduledEventType": "ScheduledSession"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "type": "SessionSeries",
      "url": "http://www.example.org/events/2",
      "name": "Swim For Adults",
      "location": {
        "type": "Place",
        "name": "A. N. Other Gym"
        ...
      },
      "eventSchedule": [
        {
          "type": "Schedule",
          "startDate": "2017-01-01",
          "endDate": "2017-12-31",
          "repeatFrequency": "P1W",
          "byDay": [ "https://schema.org/Thursday" ],
          "startTime": "18:00",
          "endTime": "20:00",
          "duration": "PT2H",
          "scheduledEventType": "ScheduledSession"
        }
      ]
    } 
  ]
}

The schema:EventSeries type can be used as a parent for any type of event, including the generic schema:Event type.

The schema:location, schema:startDate and schema:endDate propertes are only RECOMMENDED.

Note: Grouping CourseInstance
We note however that when grouping together schema:CourseInstance events, it may be more appropriate to describe associate them with a schema:Course. Although unlike schema:EventSeries this is not a type of event.
Note: Status of EventSeries
schema:EventSeries is currently a draft Schema.org type. As a result, both publishers and consumers should be aware that its definition may need to change in future versions of this specification.

5.6.9 Publishing event schedules

Note: Schema.org support for recurring events

This specification relies on some pending changes to Schema.org that will add recurrence rules to Events. The proposal has been accepted, but is not yet formally part of the model.

We expect that this proposal will become part of Schema.org in due course. This process will be driven by implementation experience and feedback from the community. On that basis we have included the terms in specification. The following section is written on that basis. However both publishers and consumers should be aware that this is an area that may change in future versions.

The previous section has described several methods for publishing lists of upcoming events, e.g. an oa:SessionSeries with a list of its upcoming oa:ScheduledSession, or a schema:EventSeries and a list of Events.

Using the schema:subEvent property in this way allows a publisher to publish a calendar of forthcoming events. This can also be useful when there may be minor variations in the details of each Event. For example an alternate location, time, etc.

However when Events occur to a precise schedule, it can be useful to publish information about the schedule itself rather than listing each individual event. Describing the schedule means publishing less data as data consumers will be able to calculate when a future event will take place.

The schema:eventSchedule property can be used to associate a [schema:Event] (or one of its sub-types) with a schema:Schedule.

Based on the iCalendar specification, a schema:Schedule define a repeating calendar entry. A data consumer can apply these rules to generate future instances of an event, e.g. to populate a calendar














Property Status Format Notes
@type REQUIRED String Schedule
schema:repeatFrequency REQUIRED String The frequency of the events, specified as an [ISO8601] duration, e.g. day, week, month
schema:startDate RECOMMENDED String Specifies the schema:Date from which the schedule is active
schema:endDate RECOMMENDED String Specifies the schema:Date at which the schedule ends.
schema:startTime REQUIRED String Specifies the schema:Time at which the Events will take place.
schema:endTime REQUIRED String Specifies the schema:Time at which the Events will end
schema:duration RECOMMENDED String Specifies the duration of the Event as an [ISO8601] duration. Durations MUST NOT be zero length. If duration is unknown it should be omitted. A duration MUST be provided if both a start and end date are available.
schema:byDay OPTIONAL Array of schema:DayOfWeek or Array of String Lists the day(s) of the week during which the Events will take place. When using string values, this MUST conform to iCal BYDAY rule.
schema:byMonth OPTIONAL Array of Integers Lists the month(s) of the year during which the Events will take place. January is the first month
schema:byMonthDay OPTIONAL Array of Integers Lists the day(s) of the month on which an Event will take place
schema:repeatCount OPTIONAL Number Specifies that an Event will repeat the specified number of times
schema:exceptDate OPTIONAL Array of Date or DateTime Defines a list of Date or DateTime during which a scheduled Event will not take place. The property allows exceptions to a Schedule to be specified. If an exception is specified as a DateTime then only the event that would have started at that specific date and time should be excluded from the schedule. If an exception is specified as a Date then any event that is scheduled for that 24 hour period should be excluded from the schedule. This allows a whole day to be excluded from the schedule without having to itemise every scheduled event.
oa:scheduledEventType REQUIRED String Specifies the type that a data consumer should assign to Events that are generated from this schedule.
oa:urlTemplate RECOMMENDED String An [RFC6570] compliant URI template that can be used to generate a unique URL (schema:url) for every event described by the schedule (see below for more information). This property is REQUIRED if the data provider wants to provide participants with a unique URL to book to attend an event.
oa:idTemplate RECOMMENDED String An [RFC6570] compliant URI template that can be used to generate a unique identifier (@id) for every event described by the schedule (see below for more information). This property is REQUIRED if the data provider is supporting third-party booking via the [Open-Booking-API].

A schema:Schedule is defined as having a number of required fields that will support the creation of events from the schedule it describes. As a minimum a data user will need to be provided with:

  • the schema:repeatFrequency at which the events will occur
  • a schema:startTime and schema:endTime properties to indicate when the events will take place
  • the [oa:scheduledEventType] that will indicate the type of Event that this schedule generates. This is important to ensure that data consumers can properly apply rules for parent-child relationships between events

While marked as optional, publishers also need to provide additional information about the frequency, e.g. whether the event occurs on a specific day, day of the month, or month, by including one of the schema:byDay, schema:byMonth or schema:byMonthDay properties

For Events that are intended to be bookable then publishers SHOULD also provide the oa:idTemplate and oa:urlTemplate properties.

In practice we recommend that publishers provide as much detail in possible to allow data consumers to reliably expand a schedule into a calendar of events.

The following example illustrates basic usage of the schema:eventSchedule property to associate an Event with a schema:Schedule. The data describes a Tai Chi class that occurs every Wednesday at 7pm

Example 19: Adding an event schedule

{
  "@context": "https://openactive.io/",
  "type": "SessionSeries",
  "url": "http://www.example.org/events/1",
  "name": "Tai chi Class",
  "description": "A tai chi class intended for beginners",
  "duration": "PT60M",
  "eventSchedule": [
    {
      "type": "Schedule",
      "startDate": "2017-01-01",
      "endDate": "2017-12-31",
      "repeatFrequency": "P1W",
      "byDay": [ "https://schema.org/Wednesday" ],
      "startTime": "19:00",
      "endTime": "20:00",
      "duration": "PT1H",
      "scheduledEventType": "ScheduledSession"
    }
  ]
}
5.6.9.1 Partial schedules

There are cases when a system may only capture partial information about event scheduling from its organizers, e.g. only that an event will run every Wednesday but not its specific timing. Perhaps because these may vary or the organizer needs to regularly confirm that events will actually run.

While information on partial schedules can be provided as text via the oa:schedulingNote property, it would be useful to have this in machine readable format where possible.

To support this publishers SHOULD use the oa:PartialSchedule type for publishing partially defined schedules. This type is identical to schema:Schedule but has no required properties.

Publishers providing a oa:PartialSchedule MUST provide information on the actual events as they are confirmed via the subEvent property.

Publishers that are able to provide the required detail for a more complete schema:Schedule SHOULD use that instead.

Note
In cases where a oa:PartialSchedule includes enough information to generate a forthcoming calendar of events, then data consumers should consider how to present this information in a way that will make it clear to end users that the event details may be subject to change.
5.6.9.2 Generating URLs and identifiers for scheduled events

This specification uses the schema:url property to provide participants with deep links into websites and booking systems. It is a REQUIRED property for every Event.

The @id property of an Event provides a unique stable identifier for an Event. It is a RECOMMENDED property that, as described in the [Open-Booking-API], MAY provide an entry point into an API that allows retrieval of current information about an Event and a means to carry out third-party bookings.

A data consumer therefore needs a reliable way to generate schema:url and @id properties for individual Events in a schedule. To achieve these we rely on URL templates defined in [RFC6570].

The oa:idTemplate and oa:urlTemplate properties of a schema:Schedule provide URL templates that can be expanded out into the appropriate @id and schema:url property values.

To apply these templates correctly, data consumers MUST support Level 1 (simple variable substitution) of [RFC6570]. Only two variables need to be substitutable into the templates: startDate and endDate.

Publishers MUST ensure that values for these properties are valid according to the Level 1 processing rules for [RFC6570]. Publishers MUST NOT use additional syntax or substitution rules from [RFC6570]].

To convert a Schedule into an instance of an Event a data consumer MUST therefore do the following:

  1. Generate an Event object with a @type property that matches the value of the schema:scheduledEventType provided in the Schedule
  2. Use the rules defined in the Schedule to calculate the schema:startDate and schema:endDate of the next event and assign these to the new Event object
  3. Take the oa:idTemplate property (if provided) and subsitute the startDate variable with the calculated value of schema:startDate. Do the same for endDate and schema:endDate. Use the resulting string as the value of the @id property for the event
  4. Take the oa:urlTemplate property (if provided) and subsitute the startDate variable with the calculated value of schema:startDate. Do the same for endDate and schema:endDate. Use the resulting string as the value of the schema:url property for the event

Other than complying with [RFC6570] publishers are free to provide additional information in their URL templates to ensure that identifiers and URLs are unique. For example by including the identifier for the parent event.

Publishers MAY use templated that generate URIs that result in redirects. Data consumers SHOULD be prepared to follow redirects from generated schema:url or @id properties.

5.6.9.3 Providing status updates for scheduled events

In the section on Indicating the status of an event we note that events are sometimes cancelled, rescheduled or postponed. It is important that data publishers provide status updates on events as a data consumer may need to notify a user of changes.

When a publisher is providing a schema:Schedule for upcoming events rather than an explicit list of upcoming events, a data consumer needs to be able to identify when an upcoming event has had a status change.

To handle this we recommend that publishers SHOULD provide details of the updated event:

  • via their RPDE feed(s), allowing all consumers to receive updates on the status of an individual events
  • via an API, e.g. as described in the [Open-Booking-API], allowing authorised data consumers to confirm the event status during booking, or to receive notifications of changes

For cancelled Events, publishers SHOULD NOT just amend a Schedule to add a new schema:exceptDate that removes the event from the schedule.

For data consumers to be able to associate an updated event description with a event they have generated from a schema:Schedule a publisher MUST use the same identifier (@id) for the event as a consumer may have generated from an oa:idTemplate provided in the schedule.

If no oa:idTemplate was provided then consumers do not have a reliable means to determine status changes. They MAY attempt to use other means, e.g. matching based on date, time, location, etc.

5.7 Describing Locations (schema:Place)

This specification recommends use of the schema:Place and schema:SportsActivityLocation types for describing locations.

The schema:location property can be used to relate an schema:Event or oa:FacilityUse to a Place.

The following table lists a number of properties that can be used to describe a schema:Place.





Property Status Format Notes
@type REQUIRED String A type of Place as defined by Schema.org
@id RECOMMENDED URI A URI providing a unique identifier for the resource
schema:identifier OPTIONAL Number, String, schema:PropertyValue or an array of schema:PropertyValue A local identifier for the resource.
schema:url RECOMMENDED URI A URL to a web page (or section of a page) that describes the Place
schema:name REQUIRED String The name of the Place
schema:description RECOMMENDED String A free text description of the Place
schema:image OPTIONAL Array of schema:ImageObject One or more images or photos that depicts the Place
schema:address RECOMMENDED String or schema:PostalAddress The street address of the location, expressed as a schema:PostalAddress. Where possible publishers MUST specify an address as an object. Publishers MUST only use a String value if all have is a generic location name, e.g. "In Victoria Park, near the lake"
schema:geo RECOMMENDED schema:GeoCoordinates The geographic co-ordinates, specified as a latitude and longitude of a Place
schema:containedInPlace OPTIONAL schema:Place Indicates that this Place is part of a larger location. Can be used to allow, e.g. a pitch or other facility to be related to a parent location such as a Leisure Centre
schema:containsPlace OPTIONAL Array of schema:Place Relates a Place to one or more other locations and facilities that it contains.
schema:telephone RECOMMENDED String A contact telephone number for the location, e.g. for enquiries
schema:openingHoursSpecification RECOMMENDED Array of schema:OpeningHoursSpecification Specifies the opening hours of a location. The value of this property is a schema:OpeningHoursSpecification.
schema:amenityFeature RECOMMENDED Array of schema:LocationFeatureSpecification Used to indicate whether specific amenities are available at a location. The value of this property will be an array of schema:LocationFeatureSpecification objects. See "Describing Amenities" for more information.

The following example illustrates a simple place description including its name, address, telephone number and website.

Example 20: Describing a leisure centre

{
  "@context": "https://openactive.io/",
  "type": "Place",
  "url": "http://www.better.org.uk/leisure-centre/banes/bath-sports-and-leisure-centre",
  "name": "Bath Sports and Leisure Centre",
  "address": {
      "type": "PostalAddress",
      "streetAddress": "North Parade Road",
      "addressLocality": "Bath",
      "addressRegion": "Somerset",
      "postalCode": "BA2 4ET",
      "addressCountry": "GB"
  },
  "telephone": "+44 (0)1225 486905"
}

5.7.1 Describing Addresses

Schema.org provides the following properties for publishing address data using the schema:PostalAddress type.





Property Status Format Notes
@type REQUIRED String PostalAddress
schema:streetAddress REQUIRED String Street address
schema:addressLocality REQUIRED String Town or other area
schema:addressRegion REQUIRED String Region
schema:postalCode REQUIRED String Postcode
schema:addressCountry REQUIRED String ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code

The following example shows how to markup a simple address:

Example 21: An Address

{
  "@context": "https://openactive.io/",
  "type": "PostalAddress",
  "streetAddress": "North Parade Road",
  "addressLocality": "Bath",
  "addressRegion": "Somerset",
  "postalCode": "BA2 4ET",
  "addressCountry": "GB"
}

5.7.2 Describing Geographic Location

A more precise geographical location can be provided for a schema:Place by adding a schema:geo property. The value of this property is a is a schema:GeoCoordinates object.






Property Status Format Notes
@type REQUIRED String GeoCoordinates
schema:latitude REQUIRED Number Latitude
schema:longitude REQUIRED Number Longitude

Latitude and longitude values SHOULD be provided to a precision of at least two decimal places in order to be useful to consumers.

The following example illustrates how to use the schema:geo property.

Example 22: Locating a leisure centre

{
  "@context": "https://openactive.io/",
  "type": "Place",
  "url": "http://www.better.org.uk/leisure-centre/banes/bath-sports-and-leisure-centre",
  "name": "Bath Sports and Leisure Centre",
  "address": {
      "type": "PostalAddress",
      "streetAddress": "North Parade Road",
      "addressLocality": "Bath",
      "addressRegion": "Somerset",
      "postalCode": "BA2 4ET",
      "addressCountry": "GB"
  },
  "telephone": "+44 (0)1225 486905",
  "geo": {
    "type": "GeoCoordinates",
    "latitude": 51.3816123,
    "longitude": -2.3544367
  }
}

5.7.3 Describing Amenities

It can be useful to describe the amenities (e.g. characteristics, services or other features) available at a location.

Schema.org provides the schema:amenityFeature property for specifying an list of amenities that are available or unavailable at a specific schema:Place. The value of a the property is an array of objects that describe the individual amenities.

To improve consistency in how amenities are published, this specification defines some common types of amenities:

Publishers SHOULD use one of these types when applicable. If there is no pre-defined type then data publishers MUST use the more generic schema:LocationFeatureSpecification type.

This avoids the need for data consumers to have to rely on the name value to identify common amenities that may otherwise be named differently (e.g. "Changing Rooms, "Changing Facilities", etc).

Example 23: Amenity example

{
  "@context": "https://openactive.io/",
  "type": "Place",
  "amenityFeature": [
     {
        "type": "ChangingRooms",
        "name": "Changing Facilities",
        "value": true
     }
  ]
}

Publishers MUST include the type, name and value properties for each amenity. A value of false indicates that a specific amenity is not available.

Additional information MAY be provided about each of the amenities, using properties from the schema:LocationFeatureSpecification type. For example, specifying opening hours (schema:hoursAvailable) or to add a description (schema:description).

The list of pre-defined amenties MAY be revised in future specifications based on feedback from the community.

In the meantime additional types of amenities can be specified using the more generic schema:LocationFeatureSpecification type as shown below:

Example 24: Generic amenity type example

{
  "@context": "https://openactive.io/",
  "type": "Place",
  "amenityFeature": [
     {
        "type": "LocationFeatureSpecification",
        "name": "Outdoor seating",
        "value": true
     }
  ]
}

5.7.4 Describing Facilities at a Location

Facilities such as swimming pools, courts, etc available at a location can be expressed using the containment properties (schema:containedInPlace and schema:containsPlace). The following example illustrates how to describe that a Leisure Centre includes a gym:

Example 25: Describing a leisure centre

{
  "@context": "https://openactive.io/",
  "type": "Place",
  "url": "http://www.better.org.uk/leisure-centre/banes/bath-sports-and-leisure-centre",
  "name": "Bath Sports and Leisure Centre",
  "address": {
      "type": "PostalAddress",
      "streetAddress": "North Parade Road",
      "addressLocality": "Bath",
      "addressRegion": "Somerset",
      "postalCode": "BA2 4ET",
      "addressCountry": "GB"
  },
  "containsPlace": [{
    "type": "SportsActivityLocation",
    "url": "http://www.better.org.uk/leisure-centre/banes/bath-sports-and-leisure-centre/gym",
    "name": "Gym"
  }]
}

5.8 Describing Organisers (schema:Person and schema:Organization)

Note

Applications must not publish personal data without permission

While the schema:Person type allows a variety of information to be published about a person, applications MUST not publish this information as open data without consent.

To describe the people and organisations involving in organising Events, Schema.org provides the schema:Person and schema:Organization types.

People and organisations can be associated with an Event using the schema:organizer, schema:contributor or oa:leader properties. These allow some flexibility in defining how a person or organisation is associated with an event. For example an event may be:

To help ensure that publishers apply these properties in consistent ways, it is recommended that:

Both the schema:Person and schema:Organization types support a common set of properties that capture the basic information required for publishing opportunity data.


Property Status Format Notes
@type REQUIRED String Person or Organization
@id RECOMMENDED URI A URI providing a unique identifier for the resource
schema:identifier OPTIONAL Number, String, schema:PropertyValue or an array of schema:PropertyValue A local identifier for the resource.
schema:url RECOMMENDED for Organization. OPTIONAL for Person URL A URL to the homepage or other page about the organisation
schema:name REQUIRED for Organization. OPTIONAL for Person. String The name of the organisation
schema:description OPTIONAL String A description of the organisation
schema:logo OPTIONAL schema:ImageObject Logo for the organization
schema:telephone RECOMMENDED for Organization. OPTIONAL for Person. String Telephone number of the organization or person.
schema:sameAs RECOMMENDED for Organization. OPTIONAL for Person. Array of String Lists the URL(s) of the official social media profile pages associated with the organization or person.

The following example illustrates how to associate an schema:Organization with an event:

Example 26: Specifying an organiser

{
  "@context": "https://openactive.io/",
  "type": "Event",
  "url": "http://www.example.org/events/1",
  "name": "Tai chi Class",
  "description": "A tai chi class intended for beginners",
  "startDate": "2017-03-22T20:00:00-05:00",
  "duration": "PT60M",
  "organizer": [{
    "type": "Organization",
    "url": "http://example.org/clubs/1",
    "name": "Bath Tai Chi Club",
    "logo": [{
        "type": "ImageObject",
        "url": "http://www.example.org/clubs/1/logo.png"
    }]
}] }

5.9 Describing Activity Lists (skos:ConceptScheme) and Physical Activity (skos:Concept)

List of Physical Activities are controlled vocabularies published using the types and properties defined by the SKOS standard. That standard covers all the requirements outlined in the concept model, allowing:

The [OpenActive-Activity-List] provides an openly licensed standard activity list that can be used by publishers. But where a publisher needs to publish their own list, then they can use the properties defined in the SKOS specification, as follows:





Property Status Format Notes
@type REQUIRED String ConceptScheme
@id REQUIRED URL A URI providing a unique identifier for the resource
schema:url REQUIRED URL A URL that links to the Activity List
dc:title REQUIRED String Title of the Activity List
schema:description RECOMMENDED String Description of the activity list
dc:license RECOMMENDED Reference to the license under which the activity list has been published
oa:concept REQUIRED Array of skos:Concept List of concepts that make up the list

The following example illustrates the basic structure of an activity list:

Example 27: Publishing an activity list

{
  "@context": "https://openactive.io/",
  "type": "ConceptScheme",
  "id": "http://www.example.org/activity-list",
  "url": "http://www.example.org/activity-list",
  "title": "Activity List",
  "description": "An example activity list",
  "concept": [{
    "type": "Concept",
    "prefLabel": "Martial Arts",
    "narrower": {
      "type": "Concept",
      "prefLabel": "Tai Chi"
    }
}] }

5.9.1 Describing Physical Activities

The following properties from the [SKOS] specification can be used to describe physical activities.




Property Status Format Notes
@type REQUIRED String Concept
@id RECOMMENDED URI A URI providing a unique identifier for the resource. If the activity is defined in a openly licensed activity list, then publishers SHOULD provide it's unique identifier.
skos:prefLabel REQUIRED String Preferred label for referring to the physical activity. The preferred labels should be used when publishing data about the activities involved in an event.
skos:altLabel OPTIONAL Array of String Alternative labels for the physical activity
skos:inScheme RECOMMENDED URI Refers to the Activity List in which this physical activity is defined. If an @id property is provided then publishers SHOULD provide this property to identify the activity list which defines the activity.
skos:broader OPTIONAL Array of URI Where an Activity List is organised as a hierarchy of activities, this property can be used to refer to a parent or broader term. E.g. "Martial Arts" is broader than "Tai Chi".
skos:narrower OPTIONAL Array of URI Where an Activity List is organised as a hierarchy of activities, this property can be used to refer to a child or narrower term. E.g. "Tai Chi" is a narrower term of "Martial Arts"
skos:notation OPTIONAL String Provides a unique code or identifier for an activity

The following markup illustrates how to describe a single activity.

Example 28: Publishing an activity list

{
  "@context": "https://openactive.io/",
  "type": "Concept",
  "id": "http://www.example.org/activity-list#tai-chi",
  "prefLabel": "Tai Chi",
  "altLabel": ["Tai-Chi"],
  "inScheme": "http://www.example.org/activity-list"
}

5.10 Describing Offers (schema:Offer)

To indicate that a schema:Event is only available to paid attendees, opportunity data provides may include details of the offers available to participants. The schema:Offer type provides some basic properties for indicating the price and availability of Offers.







Property Status Format Notes
@type REQUIRED String Offer
@id RECOMMENDED URI A URI providing a unique identifier for the resource
schema:identifier OPTIONAL Number, String, schema:PropertyValue or an array of schema:PropertyValue A local identifier for the resource.
schema:name RECOMMENDED String The name of the offer suitable for display to participants
schema:url REQUIRED URL A URL that a user can click on to start a booking process for this offer
schema:price REQUIRED Number The offer price available to participants
schema:priceCurrency RECOMMENDED String The currency of the offer price. Specified as a 3-letter ISO 4217 value. If an Offer has a zero price, then this property is not required. Otherwise the currency MUST be specified.
oa:ageRange RECOMMENDED schema:QuantitativeValue Indicates that an Offer is applicable to a specific age range. Specified as a QuantitativeValue with minValue and maxValue properties.
oa:advanceBooking OPTIONAL oa:RequiredStatusType Indicates whether to accept this offer, a participant must book in advance, whether they must pay on attending, or have option to do either. Values MUST be one of the three URIs defined by this specification (see below).
oa:prepayment OPTIONAL oa:RequiredStatusType Indicates whether to accept this offer, a participant must pay in advance, pay when attending, or have the option to do either. Values MUST be one of the three URIs defined by this specification (see below).

The following example shows an event which offers a price for attending a single session.

Example 29: Describing an Offer

{
  "@context": "https://openactive.io/",
  "type": "Event",
  "url": "http://www.example.org/events/1",
  "name": "Tai chi Class",
  "description": "A tai chi class intended for beginners",
  "duration": "PT60M",
  "offers": [{
    "type": "Offer",
    "name": "Single session",
    "price": 5,
    "priceCurrency": "GBP"
  }]
}
Note
Schema.org provides additional properties for describing Offers. The above model highlights the properties that support the most common, basic use case. Future versions of this specification may include more detail around describing offers.

5.10.1 Advance booking and prepayment

This specification defines two new properties that can be used to describe whether advance booking and prepayment is supported for an Offer.

The legal values for the oa:advanceBooking and oa:prepayment properties and their interpretation are:



Value oa:advanceBooking oa:prepayment
https://openactive.io/Required Participants must book in advance Participants must pay in advance
https://openactive.io/Optional Participants have the option to book in advance Participants may pay in advance or pay on arrival
https://openactive.io/Unavailable Advance booking is not available. Users must turn up Prepayment is not available. Users may be able to book in advance but must pay on the door

These two properties can be combined to describe the full range of options available to participants. Some combinations are restricted, for example a publisher MUST NOT specify a oa:prepayment option if there advanced booking is not available.

5.11 Describing Slots (oa:Slot)

A Slot is an opportunity to use a facility at a specific time and for a specified duration. A Slot is therefore a specific type of Event, although it has a more constrained set of properties.

A series of Slots describes a calendar during which a facility is available for use.

Slots are always associated with a oa:FacilityUse product which may link to more detail about the facility on offer and the costs for hire.





Property Status Format Notes
@type REQUIRED String Slot
@id RECOMMENDED URI A URI providing a unique identifier for the resource
schema:identifier OPTIONAL Number, String, schema:PropertyValue or an array of schema:PropertyValue A local identifier for the resource.
oa:facilityUse REQUIRED String

Links a specific Slot with the oa:FacilityUse of which it is a part.

schema:startDate REQUIRED String

The start date and time of the slot. Can be specified as a schema:Date or schema:DateTime.

schema:endDate OPTIONAL String

The end date and time of the event. Can be specified as a schema:Date or schema:DateTime

schema:duration REQUIRED String The duration of the event given in [ISO8601] format. Durations MUST NOT be zero length.
schema:offers RECOMMENDED Array of schema:Offer Describes offers to book and use this specific slot. If unspecified, then a client SHOULD use offers associated with the related Facility Use.
oa:remainingUses REQUIRED Number

Used to indicate the availability of this Slot. Where a Slot describes the opportunity to use a single facility this property should have a value of 0 or 1. Where a Slot describes the opportunity to use one of several facilities, which will be allocated during booking, then the property specific how many such facilities are remaining, and may then have a value greater than 1.

oa:maximumUses RECOMMENDED Number

Where a Slot describes the opportunity to use one of several facilities, which will be allocated during booking, then this value can be used to indicate how many facilities might be available.

Examples of describing a Slot are given in the next section.

5.12 Describing Facility Use (oa:FacilityUse, oa:IndividualFacilityUse)

A Facility Use is a subclass of schema:Product. It describes an opportunity to use either one of a group of facilities (oa:FacilityUse) or a individual facility (oa:IndividualFacilityUse).

The opportunity to use a facility is divided into a calendar of Slots, which allow a participant to use that facility for a specified time and duration.





Property Status Format Notes
@type REQUIRED String FacilityUse or IndividualFacilityUse
@id REQUIRED URI A URI providing a unique identifier for the resource
schema:url URL REQUIRED A URL to a web page (or section of a page) that describes the product
schema:identifier OPTIONAL Number, String, schema:PropertyValue or an array of schema:PropertyValue A local identifier for the resource.
schema:name REQUIRED String The name of the product or service
schema:description RECOMMENDED String A free text description of the product or service
schema:provider REQUIRED schema:Organization The organisation responsible for providing the facility
schema:image RECOMMENDED Array of schema:ImageObject One or more images or photos that depicts the facility or equipment
oa:activity REQUIRED Array of skos:Concept Specifies the physical activity or activities that can be performed when the facility is used. The activities SHOULD ideally be taken from an activity list.
schema:location REQUIRED schema:Place The location of the facility being used. This will either be a generic location, e.g. a leisure centre or sports hall for equipment or more temporary spaces, or a specific schema:SportsActivityLocation when describing opportunities to use a specific identifiable facility (oa:IndividualFacilityUse)
oa:accessibilitySupport OPTIONAL Array of String or skos:Concept Used to specify the types of disabilities or impairments that are supported at a facility
oa:accessibilityInformation OPTIONAL String Provide additional, specific documentation for participants about how disabilities are, or can be supported at a facility.
oa:attendeeInstructions OPTIONAL String Provides additional notes and instructions for users of a facility. E.g. more information on how to find it, what to bring, etc.
oa:category OPTIONAL Array of String or skos:Concept Provides a set of tags that help categorise and describe a facility.
schema:event REQUIRED Array of oa:Slot An array of one or more upcoming slots (oa:Slot) during which the product can be used. E.g. a list of hourly slots during which a football pitch might be hired. Only minimal information need be provided about each event, e.g. identifiers, start time, duration, event status, and any associated offers. This will be sufficient to allow data users to build a timetable of slots, with an availability status, price, etc.
schema:offers OPTIONAL Array of schema:Offer Describes one ore more generic offers to use a facility, e.g to indicate it is available for a set price, or may be used for free. Where offers might vary based on time of day (e.g. peak pricing) then this information should be associated with the specific event ("slot")
schema:hoursAvailable OPTIONAL Array of schema:OpeningHoursSpecification Specifies the hours during which this product is available. The value of this property is a schema:OpeningHoursSpecification.
oa:individualFacilityUse OPTIONAL Array of oa:IndividualFacilityUse Links a oa:FacilityUse product, describing a general opportunity to, e.g. book and play tennis at a leisure centre with an array of oa:IndividualFacilityUse products that provide a more detailed description about an opportunity to book, e.g. individual tennis courts. This allows a platform to publish both a general product and time-table as well as more detailed products for individual facilities.
oa:aggregateFacilityUse OPTIONAL oa:FacilityUse Inverse of the oa:individualFacilityUse property. Related an oa:IndividualFacilityUse (e.g. an opportunity to play tennis on a specific court) to a oa:FacilityUse (e.g. an opportunity to play tennis at a specific location).

The following example describes opportunities to use table tennis facilities at a leisure centre. By default use of a table is for 30 minutes and costs ten pounds.

However at specific times the cost to use a table increases. This is indicated by offers associated with the second Slot.

In both cases a maximum of four tables are available. In the example, only one table remains for use in the first slot, while the second has three.

Example 30: Describing use of a facility

{
  "@context": "https://openactive.io/",
  "type": "FacilityUse",
  "url": "http://www.example.org/facility-use/1",
  "name": "Example Leisure Centre Table Tennis",
  "description": "Table tennis tables are available to hire for thirty minute slots",
  "activity": "Table Tennis",
  "provider": {
    "type": "Organization",
    "name": "Leisure Centre Ltd"
  },
  "location": {
    "type": "Place",
    "name": "Example Leisure Centre",
    "address": {
      "type": "PostalAddress",
      "streetAddress": "1 High Street",
      "addressLocality": "Bristol",
      "addressRegion": "Somerset",
      "postalCode": "BS1 4SD",
      "addressCountry": "GB"
    }
}, "offers": [ { "type": "Offer", "name": "30 minute hire", "price": 10, "priceCurrency": "GBP" } ], "event": [ { "type": "Slot",
"id": "http://www.example.org/facility-use/slots/1", "facilityUse": "http://www.example.org/facility-use/1", "startDate": "2018-03-01T10:00:00Z",
"duration": "PT30M",
"remainingUses": 1, "maximumUses": 4 }, { "type": "Slot",
"id": "http://www.example.org/facility-use/slots/2", "facilityUse": "http://www.example.org/facility-use/1", "startDate": "2018-03-01T11:00:00Z",
"duration": "PT30M",
"remainingUses": 3, "maximumUses": 4, "offers": [ { "type": "Offer", "name": "30 minute hire", "price": 15, "priceCurrency": "GBP" } ] } ] }

The following example shows how to use the data model to publish opportunities to hire a specific tennis court. As this is an oa:IndividualFacilityUse the location property provides more detail on the location. The example describes two Slots, but the second is no longer available.

Example 31: Describing use of an individual facility

{
  "@context": "https://openactive.io/",
  "type": "IndividualFacilityUse",
  "url": "http://www.example.org/facility-use/2",
  "name": "Play Tenns on the Main Tennis Court",
  "description": "Tennis courts are available for 30 min sessions",
  "image": [
     {
       "type": "ImageObject",
       "url": "http://example.org/images/1.jpg"
     }
], "activity": "Tennis", "provider": { "type": "Organization", "name": "Leisure Centre Ltd" }, "location": { "type": "SportsActivityLocation", "name": "Main Tennis Court", "containedInPlace": { "type": "Place", "name": "Example Leisure Centre", "address": { "type": "PostalAddress", "streetAddress": "1 High Street", "addressLocality": "Bristol", "addressRegion": "Somerset", "postalCode": "BS1 4SD", "addressCountry": "GB" }
} }, "event": [ { "type": "Slot",
"id": "http://www.example.org/facility-use/slots/1", "facilityUse": "http://www.example.org/facility-use/1", "startDate": "2018-03-01T10:00:00Z",
"duration": "PT30M",
"remainingUses": 1, "maximumUses": 1 }, { "type": "Slot",
"id": "http://www.example.org/facility-use/slots/1", "facilityUse": "http://www.example.org/facility-use/1", "startDate": "2018-03-01T11:00:00Z",
"duration": "PT30M",
"remainingUses": 0, "maximumUses": 1 } ] }
Note

The community group feels that the data model proposed in this section adequately covers the primary use cases relating to publishing data on opportunities to hire and use facilities

However we recognise that there may be some consequences on the volume of data shared via RPDE feeds. Specifically, for multi-use facilities the booking of mutually exclusive configurations will end up increasing the volume of updates that need to be communicated to users.

The community group has documented this issue and requests feedback from publishers and users based on implementation feedback before deciding how to address the issue.

5.13 Extending the Model

The previous sections describe how to publish opportunity data using a combination of existing and new vocabularies. But this approach may not address every requirement. Specific applications may need custom extensions and the community may need to revise or improve the core model presented here.

Future versions of the specification may have a wider scope, e.g. to support description of facilities, equipment, event booking or accreditation schemes for sporting organisations.

With this in mind, the following sections briefly outline some expected ways in which this specification and the practice of publishing of opportunity data may evolve.

To support changing practice, consumers of opportunity data SHOULD be liberal in what they accept from data publishers, to allow the use of additional properties.

5.13.1 Versioning Policy

The broad goal is to ensure that future versions of this specification remain backwards compatible. This will ensure that published data remains valid.

New types of resource, relationships and properties can easily be added to extend the model without impacting existing data. Potential breaking changes would include changing the definitions of existing properties, or removing them from the specification.

To avoid this, the goal will be to:

  • evolve the definitions of existing properties to broadly retain their current meaning and legal values.
  • deprecate, rather than remove properties that are judged, based on implementation experience, to be less useful or confusing. Deprecated properties will be clearly marked in both the human and machine-readable versions of the OpenActive namespace.
  • ensure that conformance criteria are loosely defined, balancing the need to be able to validate data against a desire to allow some evolution in practice
  • use version numbering to indicate potential for breaking changes. Minor versions, e.g. 1.1, 2.1, etc should be backwards compatible. Major versions, e.g. 2.0, 3.0 are likely to include breaking changes.

Proposed changes to the specification will also be communicated in advance of their formal release, through the sharing of public Editor's Drafts. This will provide opportunities for both publishers and users of the data to update their applications.

5.13.2 Relationship with Schema.org and SKOS

This specification draws heavily on [SCHEMA-ORG] and [SKOS] to define its core data model. This is supplemented with additional custom types and properties that capture additional requirements for the physical activity sector.

The [SCHEMA-ORG] and [SKOS] specifications define additional properties that are not directly referenced in this document.

Rather than reflect the whole of these specifications in this document, we have chosen to include those types and properties that:

  • are necessary to document a basic framework for publishing opportunity data
  • are useful to highlight to encourage consistent usage across the community
  • have stricter conformance rules that used by [SCHEMA-ORG]. For example where we have agreed to specific uses of properties to increase quality and consistency in how data is being published

However data publishers are free to use any additional types and properties where useful. [SCHEMA-ORG] in particular provides a source of a wide range of additional properties for describing Events, Places, Organisations, etc.

For example an application may wish to share reviews of events, places or clubs. The schema:review property and its related data model can be used for this purpose, without requiring revisions to this specification.

5.13.3 Defining Custom Vocabularies

Individual publishers, or members of the community may identify new requirements for publishing opportunity data that are not covered by this specification or [SCHEMA-ORG].

These new requirements might result in:

  • submission of proposals to the OpenActive Community Group for revisions to this specification
  • creation of new specifications that support the needs fo specific types of publisher. For example a group of publishers might wish to define a detailed specification for describing the characteristics of cycle tracks
  • creation of bespoke properties that support the needs of a specific publisher and their data users

In all of these cases we encourage discussion of requirements and extensions via the OpenActive Community Group, as the primary forum for standarding the publication of opportunity data.

5.13.3.1 Defining and Using Custom Namespaces

The data model described in this specification is defined in the OpenActive JSON-LD context defined by [OpenActive-Vocabulary].

They SHOULD also:

  • publish public, human-readable documentation that describes their extension, including any custom properties, types and controlled vocabularies that are being used
  • share the documentation with the OpenActive community group
  • look for opportunities to align their data model with revisions to the
    standard and other extensions defined in the community

Publish MUST also

  • avoid using names for custom types or properties that clash with the core data model
  • publish a custom JSON-LD context to provide a machine-readable version of their extension
  • include a reference to their context in their published data

A full tutorial on creating JSON-LD contexts is outside the scope of this specification.

The following example shows a simple custom JSON-LD context that defines a new namespace ext and three custom properties.

Example 32: Example of a custom context

{
   "@context":{
      "label":"http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#label",
      "xsd":"http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#",
      "ext":"http://example.org/jsonld#",
      "id":"@id"
   },
   "ext:myCustomProperty":{
      "id":"ext:myCustomProperty",
      "label":"This is the label"
   },
   "ext:myNumericProperty":{
      "id":"ext:myNumericProperty",
      "label":"This is a property with a number value",
      "@type":"xsd:integer"
   },
   "ext:myURLProperty":{
      "id":"ext:myURLProperty",
      "label":"This is a property with a URI value",
      "@type":"@id"
   }
}

[JSON-LD] allows data to be published with reference to multiple contexts.

Assuming that the previous JSON-LD context was published to https://example.org/custom.jsonld, then the following example shows how to use this extension:

Example 33: Example of a custom context

{
  "@context": [
    "https://openactive.io/",
    "https://example.org/custom.jsonld"
  ],
  "type": "Event",
  "ext:myCustomProperty": "foo"
}

Publishers MUST NOT use unprefixed property and type names.

Using a separate context and prefixed names will help to clarify for users when a dataset is referencing one or more extensions.

5.13.3.2 Beta Namespace

The [OpenActive-Beta-Namespace] provides a custom namespace that can be used by publishers experimenting with new properties that are likely to be added to the core specification.

It is defined as a convenience to help document properties that are in active testing and review by the community. Publishers SHOULD NOT assume that properties in the beta namespace will either be added to the core specification or be included in the namespace over the long term.

Publishers needing additional custom properties SHOULD define their own namespace.

A. Acknowledgements

This section is non-normative.

The editors thank all members of the OpenActive CG for contributions of various kinds.

B. References

B.1 Normative references

[RFC2119]
S. Bradner. IETF. Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels. March 1997. Best Current Practice. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2119

B.2 Informative references

[ISO8601]
International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Representation of dates and times. ISO 8601:2004.. 2004. ISO 8601:2004. URL: http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=40874
[JSON-LD]
W3C. JSON-LD 1.0. W3C Recommendation. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/json-ld/
[Open-Booking-API]
OpenActive Community Group. OpenActive Open Booking API. URL: https://www.openactive.io/open-booking-api/EditorsDraft/index.html
[OpenActive-Activity-List]
OpenActive Community Group. OpenActive Activity List. URL: https://openactive.io/activity-list
[OpenActive-Beta-Namespace]
OpenActive Community Group. OpenActive Beta Namespace. URL: https://www.openactive.io/ns-beta/
[OpenActive-Vocabulary]
OpenActive Community Group. OpenActive Vocabulary. URL: https://www.openactive.io/ns/
[Publishing-Opportunity-Data]
OpenActive Community Group. Publishing Opportunity Data: A Primer. URL: https://www.openactive.io/opportunity-data-primer/
[RFC6570]
J. Gregorio; R. Fielding; M. Hadley; M. Nottingham; D. Orchard. IETF. URI Template. March 2012. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6570
[SCHEMA-ORG]
Schema.org. URL: https://schema.org/
[SKOS]
W3C. SKOS Simple Knowledge Organization System Primer. W3C Note. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/skos-primer